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E103 - Alkannin

Alkannin is a natural dye that is obtained from the extracts of plants from the borage family Alkanna tinctoria that are found in the south of France. The dye is used as a food coloring and in cosmetics. It is used as a red-brown food additive in regions such as Australia, and is designated in Europe as the E number E103, but is no longer approved for use. Alkannin has a deep red color in a greasy or oily environment and a violet color in an alkaline environment.The chemical structure as a naphthoquinone derivative was first determined by Brockmann in 1936. The enantiomer of alkannin is known as shikonin, and the racemic mixture of the two is known as shikalkin.The enzyme 4-hydroxybenzoate geranyltransferase utilizes geranyl diphosphate and 4-hydroxybenzoate to produce 3-geranyl-4-hydroxybenzoate and diphosphate. These compounds are then used to form alkannin.Alkannin is an antioxidant and has an antimicrobial effect against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. It is also known to have wound healing, antitumor, and antithrombotic properties. Shikonin is also found in the Chinese herbal medicine plant Lithospermum erythrorhizon, the red-root gromwell, -紫草 zicao, Pinyin: zǐcǎo-. - Wikipedia

Names: Jaune chrysoïne, Alkannine, jaune chrysoïne S, Chrysoïne S, Orcanette, Orcanete, CI rouge naturel 20, extrait d'Alkannet, crisoine, Alkannin, CI Natural Red 20, Alkanet extract, Chrysoineresorcinol, jaune de résorcinol, jaune d'or, T jaune, orange acide 6, CI 14270, résorcinol de Chrysoine